S. Franzese y F. Kraemer (eds.), Fringes of Religious Experience
Cross-Perspectives on William James's The Varieties of Religious Experience
Ontos, Frankfurt, 2007, 157-168.
""I am inflamed at the idea of seeing & knowing Spain."
Letter of July 10th, 1877 from Henry to William James
William James sailed in the steamer Spain from New York to Europe on 10th October 18732, but he did not visit Spain nor stay for any length of time in any other Spanish-speaking country throughout all his life. James had particularly close ties to the philosophical communities in England, Italy, France and Germany, but his personal links with Spain were much weaker. In those times Spain was not only an isolated and declining country, but also —as everybody knows— there was a war between Spain and the United States in 1898 over the Spanish dominance of Cuba and the Philippines3. In spite of that strong sociological and cultural contrast between both countries, James's thought and books were soon received in Spain by prominent scholars such as Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955), and Eugenio d'Ors (1881-1954). In fact, it is possible to assert that, contrary to a superficial impression, there is a deep affinity between the central questions of American pragmatism and the topics and problems addressed by the most relevant Hispanic thinkers of the twentieth century4. Amongst them probably the best and the earliest Spanish reader of James was Miguel de Unamuno, one of the foremost intellectuals of the Hispanic cultural world in the past century. Unamuno is most well known for his Life of Don Quixote and Sancho.
Our aim in this article, after providing the general framework of the reception of William James in Spain, is to trace the reception of Varieties through Unamuno's reading of this book. With this goal in mind, our article has been divided into the following three sections: 1) the reception of William James in Spain, 2) Unamuno's reading of Varieties, highlighting some peculiar aspects of his way of reading that book, and 3) some suggestions about further work to be done in order to explore in greater depth the reception of William James in Spanish-speaking countries.
1. The reception of William James in Spain
The aim of this section is to describe some of the main facts of James's reception in Spain and the Hispanic world, starting with the translations and following with those readers of James who introduced him to the Spanish speaking audience. A number of names and facts are to be mentioned, because they provide the general framework for understanding this long process that extended throughout all the past century, and which is enjoying a general resurgence.
Without any doubt, a sign of the warm reception of William James in Spain is the early translation of a number of his books. The first translation of James into Spanish appeared as early as 1900. It was a two-volume translation of the Principles of Psychology (1890), by Domingo Barnés (1870-1943), published by Editorial Jorro of Madrid. A second edition appeared in 1909. Barnés was a well known Spanish educator of his time, member of the famous Institución Libre de Enseñanza, and an expert in psychology and sociology. Besides the Principles, Barnés translated a dozen books by contemporary authors such as John Dewey, Henri Bergson and others5.
The second James's translation into Spanish was the work Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life’s Ideals (1899), which appeared in 1904. The translator was Carlos M. Soldevila. Three years later, the first translation of The Varieties of Religious Experience into Spanish was done by Miguel Domenge Mir. It was published in three volumes under the title Fases del sentimiento religioso. Estudio sobre la naturaleza humana6. This probably had a very small print run, because very few copies remain in the Spanish libraries today. Roughly eighty years later, in 1986, a new translation circulated widely, which has since been reprinted five times. This edition includes a foreword by the well known Spanish philosopher José Luis L. Aranguren, in which he writes that the year 1901-02 of William James's Gifford Lectures, "was a milestone in the history of psychology, and, therefore, in the history of religious psychology and in the consideration of religion by learned people"7.
The fourth translation of James into Spanish was The Will to Believe and
Other Essays in Popular Philosophy in 1909, under the title of La vida
eterna y la fe [Eternal Life and Faith], reprinted in 1922 as
La voluntad de creer y otros ensayos de filosofía popular8.
The translator was Santos Rubiano (1871-1930), an army doctor who was a pioneer
in the application of the methods and concepts of modern psychology in the Spanish
army. A veteran of the Philippines and North African wars, he was trained as
a psychologist at Cornell University in the United States in 1916, funded by
the Spanish Ministry of Public Education9. In
that year Rubiano translated the Psychology. Briefer Course, which
had a second edition in 1930. After the opening page there is a photographical
reproduction of a hand-written text from William James dated on the 22nd of
March of 1908. The text is the following:
Rubiano includes a lively "biographical-critical foreword" in his translation of the Briefer Course. He writes that in this book "not only speaks the professor alone, but also the genius and the believer", and that James "was able to create from his own personality his own method of teaching, and [that] in his personality it was possible to find not only a philosopher but a good man"11. Besides these two works, Rubiano translated Pragmatism into Spanish in 1923, and in 1924 The Meaning of Truth as well as a new translation of Talks to Teachers12.
In the 1930's the interest in James seems to have faded in the Hispanic world. Nevertheless, publishers in Argentina and Mexico in the following two decades produced reprints of old translations as well as some new translations. Among them there should be mentioned at least the translation of Some Problems of Philosophy by Juan Adolfo Vázquez in Tucumán, Argentina, in 1944, and the new translation of Pragmatism by Vicente P. Quintero in 1945, which includes a preliminary note by Jorge Luis Borges13. In that text Borges described James as an "admirable writer" to the point that he was able to make attractive such a reasonable way of thinking as the pragmatism of the first two decades of our century, with "halfway solutions" and "quiet hypotheses"14. Years later, for unknown reasons, Borges refused to include that foreword in his compilation of prefaces. For the same period the Spanish translations by Luis Rodríguez Aranda of Pragmatism in 1954 and of The Meaning of Truth in 1957 should be mentioned.
With the revival of pragmatism in the last decade there has been a new impulse for translating James into Spanish. In 1992 two manuscripts of James on substance and phenomenon that appeared originally in Perry's The Thought and Character of William James were translated15, and in 1998, on the occasion of the centennial of The Human Immortality, a translation of this work by Angel Cagigas was published16. The most recent publication of James in Spain has been a new translation of Pragmatism by Ramón del Castillo in the year 2000, including a foreword and editorial notes17. As a summary of this enumeration we can say that by the end of this century most of William James's books had been translated into Spanish: only A Pluralistic Universe (1909) and Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912) are awaiting a Spanish translator.
Turning now to the secondary bibliography on William James available in Spanish, it may be arranged in two groups. First, the books and papers in Spanish written by Hispanic authors, and second, the translation into Spanish of books and papers from foreign authors. A thorough study is still required, but we can say in advance that probably this second group is bigger than the first one. This fact may be interpreted as a sign of the interest in James in the Spanish speaking countries and at the same time as a sign of the lack of real scholarship and of original production on American pragmatism.
Amongst the early translations of secondary bibliography it should be mentioned Emile Boutroux' William James (A. Colin, Paris, 1911), which was reviewed by Eugenio d'Ors in the journal Arxius de l’Institut de Ciències, and translated in 1921 into Spanish in Montevideo and published with a foreword of d'Ors. Also a paper of Emile Boutroux on William James's pedagogical ideas was published in the Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza18. Other later relevant translations are Ralph Barton Perry's The Thought and Character of William James (briefer version) by Eduardo Prieto in 197319, and Jacques Barzun's A Stroll with William James in 1986, in which the affinity between William James and the Spanish thinkers Unamuno and Ortega, "both fighting positivism," is already noticed20.
Coming now to the original production of the Spanish speaking countries on James, in 1961 Pelayo H. Fernández studied in detail how Miguel de Unamuno read William James, his frequent quotations of James and his marginal notes in the works by James in his library. Fernández's conclusion was that Unamuno's pragmatism was "original with respect to that of the American, from whom he absorbed only complementary features"21. However, in our opinion, the abundance of facts that Pelayo Fernández lists bears witness to a great influence, and a great similarity between the two thinkers on many issues and problems. In any case, Fernández's doctoral dissertation and the subsequent monograph is the starting point for everybody interested in the reception of James in Spain, especially through Unamuno.
In the case of José Ortega y Gasset, John Graham published a careful study in which, after noting Ortega’s hostility to American pragmatism, he reveals "many basic connections, similarities and points of identity, so that concrete influence and dependence seem more plausible than 'coincidence' between Ortega and James"22. Graham gives evidence that Ortega read James early in his career, and that Ortega was aware of James’s radical empiricism as having anticipated the central notion in his own "rational-vitalism"23. His evidence of James's impact on Ortega by German sources, themselves influenced by James, is specially convincing24.
In contrast with Ortega, the aforementioned Eugenio d'Ors is perhaps the Hispanic philosopher most conscious of his personal connection with American pragmatism. By 1907 he had defined himself as a pragmatist, driven by the same desires as moved his American counterparts, whom he hoped to outstrip by recognising an aesthetic dimension of human action that could not be reduced to the merely utilitarian25. Forty years later, in 1947, in his El secreto de la filosofía which crowned his philosophical career, he generously acknowledges his debt to the American tradition26.
In Latin America the connection with American pragmatism can be traced back to the hostile reactions of the philosophers Coriolano Alberini (1886-1960) from Argentina, and Carlos Vaz Ferreira (1871-1958) from Uruguay, against the pragmatism of William James and F. C. S. Schiller: the latter because of the spiritualism of these pragmatists, the former on the grounds of its being a threat to the traditional religious background27. The contrast between both readings has made difficult an open reception of William James and in particular of his Varieties. These difficulties are also apparent in Enrique Molina's reading of James. This philosopher, defender of positivism in Chile, understands James as a contradictory thinker holding at the same time both skepticism and dogmatic traditionalism28.
In recent years, there has been a small revival of books and dissertations on William James. We will only mention here the books of our colleagues Jorge Pérez de Tudela El pragmatismo americano (1988) and Angel Faerna Introducción a la teoría pragmática del conocimiento (1996).
2. Unamuno’s reading of The Varieties of Religious Experience
Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo was born in the Basque city of Bilbao in 1864. He studied Philosophy and Arts in Madrid, and lived almost all his life in Salamanca, where he held a chair in Greek Philology. He was twice the rector of the University of Salamanca (1901-14 and 1930-36). Unamuno was a philosopher-poet and an educated mind, "who sought to save Spain with rationalised religiousness"29. He was deeply religious, but far from Catholic orthodoxy, a faith which he lost in his youth. All his works were characterised by a strong philosophical struggle to reconcile reason with religion. After his son's death in 1897, Unamuno sought to regain his childhood faith, oscillating between retreating to orthodox Catholicism, converting to liberal Protestantism or yielding to scepticism. As a philosopher Unamuno did not create a systematic presentation of his thought. He objected strongly to academic philosophers, and stressed that the deepest of all human desires is the hunger for personal immortality against all our rational knowledge of life. As Orringer writes, "obsessed with mortality, Unamuno achieved philosophical maturity with a blend of liberal Protestant theology and the philosophies of James and Kierkegaard in his conception of 'the tragic sense of life' — the theme of his essays, novels, dramas, poetry and journalism"30.
Unamuno is one of the most representative writers of the group so called "Generación del 98" (from the year 1898, when Spain was defeated in the war with the United States over Cuba and Philippines), a group deeply concerned with the future of Spain in the contemporary world. Unamuno's option was to "españolizar Europa" ["to hispanize Europe"] in order to overcome the isolation of Spain. Unamuno's main philosophical works are Del sentimiento trágico de la vida en los hombres y en los pueblos (1911-12) [The Tragic Sense of Life], Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1905) [Life of Don Quixote and Sancho], and La agonía del Cristianismo (1931) [The Agony of Christianity]. He died by a stroke in Salamanca the last day of the year 1936.
As we have said, Unamuno had a vast culture, and he also had well-stocked library of literature, philosophy and humanities in all languages, preserved now in the Casa-Museo Miguel de Unamuno in the University of Salamanca31. That library contained over 100 volumes of prose, poetry and fiction by Americans, ranging from classic nineteenth-century authors like Emerson and Thoreau to contemporary authors such as Pound or Wharton32. For our present research there are three relevant works of William James found in that library: The Will to Believe (1897), The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) and Pragmatism (1907). The copy of the Varieties is of the first edition, and in the margins of 32 pages of that volume there are hand-written pencil annotations from Unamuno33.
An important fact in relation with these three works is that the copies of Varieties and Pragmatism that Unamuno owned are first editions, from 1902 and 1907 respectively. In the case of The Will to Believe (1897) the copy in Unamuno's library is of the printing of 1902. This shows not only that Unamuno was well aware of the novelties of his times, but also that he was personally involved in the process of reception of pragmatism in Spain and in Europe. Unamuno was well versed in English and read William James very early and in the original sources. Beginning in 1896 Unamuno quoted regularly from William James's books and ideas in his papers and books, and pioneered the spreading of pragmatist ideas in the Spanish-speaking world.
In Unamuno's published works throughout a total span of forty years there are 32 quotations of William James: 19 from The Will to Believe, 7 from the Principles of Psychology, 5 from Varieties and 2 from Pragmatism. His first quotation of the Varieties —which is a translation of Mrs. Annie Besant's quotation in page 27 of Varieties— occurred in 1904. The last quotation, in 1913 in his The Tragic Sense of Life, is a remembrance of God as producer of immortality for the great majority of men, Kant, James, and Unamuno himself included34. In Unamuno's copy of the Varieties the conclusion James draws is marked with six vertical lines and one horizontal: "Religion, in fact, for the great majority of our own race means immortality, and nothing else. God is the producer of immortality"35.
Unamuno's reading and references to Varieties are strictly connected with one of the deepest of Unamuno's concerns: the problem of human immortality. This issue forms the axis around which all his work turns. One of the main ideas that will lead Unamuno to deal obsessively with human immortality is that death confers fullness of sense to life. Unamuno vacillated between believing in the survival after death of a part of the person, or complete extinction. Unamuno's last quotation from Varieties is particularly relevant: in Varieties Unamuno finds corroboration for his own idea of God as producer of immortality. If human immortality is warranted by God, we can trust that we shall not die completely, because something from ourselves will survive death. There are two other references from Unamuno to God as producer of human immortality in The Tragic Sense of Life: "Another professor, the professor and man William James, has already said somewhere that for the generality of men God is the provider of immortality. Yes: for the generality of men, including the man Kant, the man James, and the man who writes these lines, which you, Reader, are reading"36. And eighty pages later, Unamuno writes again, "one so ardently desirous of the immortality of the soul as William James, a man whose entire philosophy aims at establishing this essence on rational grounds (…)"37.
The exploration of Unamuno's library and of his texts reveals him as an avid reader of James. "I know well the professor James, whose works The Will to Believe and Other Essays and The Varieties of the Religious Experience I own," Unamuno writes in a letter of 190438. Unamuno feels himself to be linked with James, whom he likes to describe as "the pragmatist, another hopeless Christian", and as "such a serious man, of so sincere a spirit and so deeply religious"39. As we said before, Fernández's conclusion was that Unamun'’s pragmatism was "original with respect to that of the American, from whom he absorbed only complementary features." However, in our opinion, it should be said more accurately that there is not only a great similarity between the two thinkers on many issues and problems, but that James had a permanent impact on Unamuno's intellectual development. Recently, Pedro Cerezo has studied more precisely the real scope of James's influence. According to Cerezo, Unamuno's reading of William James in the first decade of the century was a turning point in the evolution of his mind, taking Unamuno away from metaphysical pessimism and turning his attention to practical reason, to that action which is able to provide orientation and sense to life40.
Finally, we want to explore another peculiar link between James and Unamuno centered in the figure of Don Quixote. In The Varieties of Religious Experience William James wrote:
In these remarks I am leaning only upon mankind's common instinct for reality, which in point of fact has always held the world to be essentially a theatre for heroism. In heroism, we feel, life's supreme mystery is hidden. We tolerate no one who has no capacity whatever for it in any direction. On the other hand, no matter what a man's frailties otherwise may be, if he be willing to risk death, and still more if he suffer it heroically, in the service he has chosen, the fact consecrates him forever. Inferior to ourselves in this or that way, if yet we cling to life, and he is able 'to fling it away like a flower' as caring nothing for it, we account him in the deepest way our born superior. Each of us in his own person feels that a high-hearted indifference to life would expiate all his shortcomings41.
With these words, William James defines the heroism of saintliness. For a Spanish reader, these lines strike a very special chord: the hero of William James may be understood as the same hero of Cervantes described by Unamuno in his Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho. The "saint" described by James is Cervantes's hero as Unamuno conceives him. Unamuno sees in Don Quixote the Jamesian characteristics of the saint: strength of soul, purity, charity, chastity, poverty and obedience. These virtues are incarnated in Don Quixote, especially the strength of soul which leads him to bear all kinds of bodily and spiritual sufferings in his quest for making the world a place of justice. Furthermore, "few things elevate Don Quixote more than his disdain of worldly riches": Don Quixote is an example of poverty and purity of soul, because of "his spiritual childhood and his heroic innocence"42.
Don Quixote regarded evil from the Jamesian perspective of healthy-mindedness, by which "evil means only a mal-adjustment to things, a wrong correspondence of one's life with the environment"43. Evil is a maladjustment between his imagined world and the real one. Don Quixote goes out to the real world willing to fulfil divine law. The two kinds of character in which James divides mankind (healthy-minded and sick souls) come together in Don Quixote. Indeed, Don Quixote healthy-minded respecting his conception of evil, but sick in soul, as he is one of those who must be born again to be happy. For this reason Cervantes's hero is reborn in his particular conversion from Alonso Quijano to Don Quixote. In this sense, Don Quixote is the quintessential hero. It can be said —in a Jamesian sense— that we find in Don Quixote all that we look for in a hero. We forgive all his weaknesses because of his courage and his willingness to risk his life, heroically defending the noble cause he has chosen. This is Don Quixote, this is the pragmatist hero.
3. Further work to be done
Much remains to be done in order to explore in greater depth the reception of William James in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries. We would like this paper to be not only a starting point of further analysis, but also a sign of our personal commitment to the European William James Project. Our proposal is centered now in developing the following steps:
1) To publish on our website (http://www.unav.es/gep/BibliografiaJames.html) in the year 2003 a complete checklist of William James translations into Spanish and all the available information about the secondary bibliography in Spanish. Both lists should be completed by scholars from different Spanish speaking countries in order to include all the items that we ourselves have not been able to collect.
2) To enlarge our documentation center and library in Navarre on Charles Sanders Peirce to include the bibliography of his friend and benefactor William James. We have already obtained public funding to do so.
3) To publish on our website the Spanish translations of James' out of print works. In particular, we are considering the publication of translations of The Will to Believe (1897), Talks to Teachers (1899), The Meaning of Truth (1909) and Some Problems of Philosophy (1911).
4) To translate into Spanish A Pluralistic Universe (1909) and Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912), which are the only books of William James not translated up to now.
5) To look for doctoral students to explore in detail the reception of James in Spain and the Spanish speaking countries, in Argentina and Uruguay in particular.
6) To study in greater detail the connections between Italian and Spanish pragmatisms. We are preparing an 'integrated action' funded by the Italian and Spanish governments, with the Department of Philosophy of the University of "Roma Tre", in order to study these connections from both sides.
1. The main argument of this paper has been developed on the occasion of the International and Interdisciplinary Centenary Conference "William James and The Varieties of Religious Experience," held in July 2002 at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and published in an abridged version in Streams of William James, Summer 2003. It is here revised and expanded. We are very grateful to Ramón del Castillo, Ruth Anna Putnam and Eugene Taylor for their suggestions and comments on the oral presentation, and especially to the editor Felicitas Kraemer for her corrections and to Erik Norvelle for his revision of our English.
2. I. Skrupselis and E. M. Berkeley (eds.): The Correspondence of William James, Charlottesville, VA, University Press of Virginia, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 446-449.
3. For William James's position in the Spanish-American war, see L. Simon: Genuine Reality. A Life of William James, Harcourt & Brace, Orlando, FL, 1998, pp. 279-282, and his letters in The Correspondence of William James, vol. 3, pp. 25-36.
4. Cf. J. Nubiola: "C. S. Peirce and the Hispanic Philosophy of the Twentieth Century," Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 24/1 (1998), pp. 31-49.
5. W. James: Principios de psicología. Translation of Domingo Barnés. Madrid, Editorial Daniel Jorro, 1900, 2 vols.; 2nd edition, 1909. A useful source on Barnés is R. Cardá and H. Carpintero: "Domingo Barnés: Biografía de un educador avanzado," Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, II época, n. 12 (1991), pp. 63-74.
6. W. James: Fases del sentimiento religioso. Estudio sobre la naturaleza humana. Translation of Miguel Domenge Mir, Barcelona, Carbonell y Esteva, 1907-08, 3 vols.
7. W. James: Las variedades de la experiencia religiosa. Translation of José Francisco Yvars. Barcelona, Ediciones Península, 1986. There is also a translation into Catalan of M. Mirabent y J. Bachs, Les varietats de l'experiència religiosa: estudi de la naturalesa humana. Barcelona, Edicions 62, 1985.
8. W. James: La vida eterna y la fe. Translation of Santos Rubiano. Barcelona, Heinrich, 1909; reprinted as La voluntad de creer y otros ensayos de filosofía popular. Madrid, Editorial Daniel Jorro, 1922.
9. Cf. J. Bandrés, y R. Llavona: "Santos Rubiano: la introducción de la psicología científica en el ejército español", Psicothema, IX/3 (1997), pp. 659-669.
10. W. James: Compendio de psicología. Translation of Santos Rubiano. Madrid, Editorial Daniel Jorro, 1916; 2nd edition, 1930.
11. S. Rubiano, "William James. Bosquejo biográfico. Nota crítica sobre su ideario psicológico," p. xiii. It is still pending to explore in more detail the relations between Rubiano and James.
12. W. James: Pragmatismo. Madrid, Editorial Daniel Jorro, 1923; W. James: El significado de la verdad. Madrid, Editorial Daniel Jorro, 1924; W. James: Psicología pedagógica (para maestros). Sobre algunos ideales de la vida (para estudiantes). Madrid, Editorial Daniel Jorro, 1924.
13. W. James: Problemas de la filosofía. Translation of Juan Adolfo Vázquez. Tucumán, Argentina, Editorial Yerba Buena, 1944; and Pragmatismo. Un nombre nuevo para algunos viejos modos de pensar. Translation of Vicente P. Quintero with a preliminar note of Jorge Luis Borges. Buenos Aires, Emecé Editores, 1945.
14. J.L. Borges: "Nota preliminar," in W. James, Pragmatismo. p. 10; about that connection see also J. Nubiola: "Jorge Luis Borges and William James," Streams of William James. A Publication of the William James Society I/3 (1999), p. 7.
15. R.B. Perry: The Thought and Character of William James, I, Little, Brown, Boston, 1935, pp. 525-528 and pp. 578-580. Translation of Sebastián M. Pascual Sastre in "Manuscritos sobre la sustancia y el fenómeno", Taula, 17-18 (1992), pp. 101-109.
16. W. James: La inmortalidad humana. Translation of Ángel Cagigas. Jaén, Editorial del Lunar, 1998.
17. W. James: Pragmatismo. Un nuevo nombre para viejas formas de pensar. Traducción, notas y prólogo de Ramón del Castillo. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2000. In 1997 Ramon del Castillo published under the title Lecciones de Pragmatismo (Madrid, Santillana) the old translation of Rodríguez Aranda with an introductory study.
18. E. d'Ors: "Review of Emile Boutroux's William James," Arxius de l’Institut de Ciències I, 1, (1911), pp. 150-153; E. Boutroux: William James y su filosofía. Translation of Mario Falcao Espalter. Montevideo, Editorial Claudio García, 1921; E. Boutroux: "La pedagogía de William James," Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, n. 617, (1911), pp. 222-231.
19. R. B. Perry: El pensamiento y la personalidad de William James. Translation of Eduardo J. Prieto. Buenos Aires, Editorial Paidós, 1973.
20. J. Barzun: Un paseo con William James. Translation of Juan José Utrilla. México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1986, p. 228.
21. P. H. Fernández: Miguel de Unamuno y William James. Un paralelo pragmático. Salamanca, CIADA, 1961, p. 13.
22. J. T. Graham: A Pragmatist Philosophy of Life in Ortega y Gasset. Columbia, MI, University of Missouri Press, 1994, p. 145.
23. J. T. Graham: A Pragmatist Philosophy of Life in Ortega y Gasset, pp. 147-152.
24. A. Donoso: "Review of Graham's A Pragmatist Philosophy of Life in Ortega y Gasset," Hispania 78 (1995), p. 499.
25. E. d'Ors: Glosari de Xenius. Barcelona, Tallers Gráfics Montserrat, 1915, vol. II, pp. 373-375.
26. E. d'Ors: El secreto de la filosofía. Barcelona, Iberia, 1947, p. 12.
27. C. Alberini: El pragmatismo. Buenos Aires, Otero Impresores, 1910; Carlos Vaz Ferreira, Conocimiento y acción, Montevideo, Imprenta El Siglo Ilustrado, 1920.
28. E. Molina: Filosofía americana. Ensayos. Paris, Garnier, 1914, pp. 212-213.
29. N. A. Orringer: "Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de (1864-1936)," in E. Craig (ed.): Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London, Routledge, 1998, vol. 9, p. 519.
30. N. A. Orringer: "Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de (1864-1936)," p. 519.
31. Casa Museo Miguel de Unamuno: http://www.acamfe.org/unamuno_s/unamuno_s.htm
32. Cf. M. Thomas Inge: "Unanumo's Correspondence with North Americans: A Checklist," Hispania 53 (1970), p. 277. For a catalogue of that library, see M. J. Valdés and M. Elena: An Unamuno Source Book: A Catalogue of Readings and Acquisitions with an Introductory Essays on Unamuno's Dialectical Enquiry, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1973.
33. We are grateful to the Casa Museo Miguel de Unamuno for allowing us to photocopy those annotated pages. These volumes were carefully studied by P. H. Fernandez in his Miguel de Unamuno y William James, see especially pp. 15-20 and 45-48. According to the catalogue of Unamuno's readings, he also owned Spanish copies of James's Los ideales de la vida (Barcelona, Henrich, 1904, 2 vols.) and La vida eterna y la fe (Barcelona, Henrich, 1904): M. J. Valdés and M. E. de Valdés, An Unamuno Source Book, p. 125.
34. Cf. M. Unamuno: Del sentimiento trágico de la vida, Madrid, Renacimiento, 1911-12, pp. 10-11.
35. W. James: The Varieties of Religious Experience. The Works of William James, vol. XIII Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1985, p. 412.
36. M. de Unamuno: The Tragic Sense of Life. Translation by Anthony Kerrigan, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1972, p. 7.
37. M. de Unamuno: The Tragic Sense of Life, p. 91.
38. M. de Unamuno: Letter to Alberto Nin Frías, 15 August 1904; quoted by H. Benítez: El drama religioso de Unamuno, Buenos Aires, Instituto de Publicaciones Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1949, p. 124, n. 20.
39. M. de Unamuno: "¿Qué es verdad?," in B. G. de Cándamo (ed.): Ensayos, Madrid, Aguilar, 1951, 3ª ed., vol. I, p. 809.
40. Pedro Cerezo: Las máscaras de lo trágico. Filosofía y tragedia en Miguel de Unamuno, Madrid, Trotta, 1996, pp. 278-289.
41. W. James: The Varieties of Religious Experience, p. 290.
42. M. de Unamuno: Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho, Madrid, Alianza, 1987, p. 57.
43. W. James: The Varieties of Religious Experience, p. 114.
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Última actualización: 27 de agosto 2009